Saturday, March 14, 2020

Production and consumption of media texts Essay Example

Production and consumption of media texts Essay Example Production and consumption of media texts Paper Production and consumption of media texts Paper The way we view media today has changed considerably when compared to even Just ten years prior. The media culture has evolved. The average human went from going to the supermarket in the morning to buy newspaper to going online in the morning to read BBC Online. Statistics show that printed news is still popular among people, with 84 of adults who are college graduates or higher in the United States having admitted to reading printed newspaper over online news (Nielsen Wire, 2009). However, the consistent rise in the number of people who choose online news to printed news cannot be disputed. According to Pew Research (2009), the percentage of people who read online news for al age groups have risen, the most drastic rise being in the Generation Y sector, that is the sector of the population that was born in the year 1977 or later. According to the article, the percentage of people who chose to read newspapers in 2006 was 22, more than twice what it was in 20089. Though the death of print media is greatly exaggerated at present time, it is very likely to come. With technology becoming more and more important to society in an increasingly rapid timeshare, you can expect that its death will come much quicker than expected. So with that, we must ask ourselves how does the production and consumption of media texts change through remediation Old media is basically referred to traditional means of communication and expression way before the existence of the Internet, such as Journalism industries like newspapers, books, film, and radio (Sails, n. D. ). In contrast to old media, new media is defined as interactive and engaging forms of communication that use the Internet. New media makes it possible for anyone to create, connect, collaborate and share creative content on the web (Circuit, 2009). New media has injected new vitality and competition into news (Rand Media Group, 2012). Remediation, when pertaining to the media, is the integration or transference of one medium into another medium (WAIS, n. D. ). This basically means that remediation is the process of changing one form of media to another, usually for the purpose of reaching and impacting a larger amount of people. A very good example of remediation is when a book is adapted into a movie. Films like Into the Wild, the Harry Potter series and even cult favorite, Twilight, are all products of remediation. Often times, it is the movie adaptation that opens peoples eyes to the existence of the books they are based on. The popularity of a movie adaptation can very much affect the popularity of the book itself. According to Sewer and Mending (2010, Para. 4), the popularity of the Twilight movies have not only boosted sales of the Twilight novels themselves but have also been pinpointed as the reason behind an 18 increase of science fiction and fantasy book sales among children and teenagers since the year 2005. In the context of our Engaging Media unit however, we look at emendation as turning printed media such as newspapers and magazines into Internet-based media such as videos and online news sites. Such as with our recent remediation assignment, we were asked to take a textual medium and present it in a media format. We chose to focus our assignment on an article from the New York Times about Isabella Carr, a model who died suffering from anorexia nervous. What we did was, we took the article and converted it into a video, fit for the more visually aware generation of todays world. Through the advent of the Internet, the media is experiencing an alteration in their production and consumption process. The media has been shifted through remediation and this shift from old media to new media has revolutionized traditional media and has taken advantage of the massive potential of todays technology. Content has become the central focus of our generation ever since the mentality of people has changed through the dawn of the web. Bill Gates wrote in his article Content is King, that the Internet is the multimedia equivalent of a photocopier that have the ability to take over distribution channels (1996). The Internet allows for content to be distributed to a global audience at zero marginal cost to the publisher (Gates, 1996). In the past, old school media organizations assessed and controlled their distribution channels such as printing presses and broadcasting licenses (Yeats, 2011). Today, the Internet serves as a medium for production, consumption, and distribution. Over the past decade, more and more websites for people to communicate and visit has mushroomed all over the Internet. The web has become a fundamental tool for interaction in our daily lives and this is because of the network effect. Gwen Sharp illustrates the network effect to be a situation whereby something becomes more valuable as more people use it (2012). Because of the network effect, users of the Internet find it necessary to express themselves through their own work, which gave birth to a new context of remix culture in our social evolution. Remix culture is becoming the norm of our generation today. The elements of social evolution are behaviors, skills and ideas. It is who we are, how we live and how we create developing new ideas from old ones (Ferguson, 2012). With that being said, copying is how we learn and discover Ferguson, 2012). We cannot introduce anything new until we are certain that we know what we are doing, and we do that through emulation (Ferguson, 2012). Since our knowledge portrays who we are as individuals, it is important for people to demonstrate their creativity and skills to show express their identity (Dixon, 2009). People want to create and present their individuality and not Just consume. In the age of democratic media, the tools of media productions are literally at the palm of our hands (Gilmore, 2009). Furthermore, we can make what we create widely available for a global audience. Unlike traditional media, element of distribution of new media is Just by letting people know that it is available online for them to see (Gilmore, 2009). Based on the framework of our recent remediation project, we produced a reanimated video which was based on an online newspaper article, by coming up with new ways to describe the scenario, unique and appealing ways to edit, and present the ideas, sounds and visuals (Pelvis, 2009). By transforming a textual based news article into a short news report video without altering the initial original work, we have successfully created an entirely new media format through emendation. Consumers are always looking for new ways to approach new media by listening and viewing. They set the bar on what is worth their attention by how the story is being told, the idea of it, how it is able to capture their curiosity, and with the freedom to watch and listen (Pelvis, 2009). Referring to our remediation project as an example, we have made it available for viewers to see our video by publishing it on Faceable. The feedback that we have received from our remediation project is that it looks more interesting and engaging. Rather than reading something, it is much ore fascinating for our viewers and consumers to visually experience the scenario by creating a platform for them to experience it in a unique and rich way which also has some sense of our identity. Of course, new media has its shortcomings. The Internet has made it so easy for people to receive and distribute information, sometimes with harmful intentions. Users are allowed to curate and consume on their own terms, on their own choice and on their own moment in time (Mali, 2010). With the rise of such practices as remediation, piracy has become that much easier to get away with. Copyright and ownership restrictions have become tricky to lay down as this new online era has blurred the lines of legality pertaining to this issue. Not only is distribution made simpler when done online, the media being distributed also reaches devastatingly large amounts of people. In addition, if you use the Internet, you are one of 2,267,233,752 in the world that is capable of accessing pirated media online (Internet World Stats, 2011). To further clarify Just how wide of a net the Internet has thrown over the worlds population, look no further than Youth (n. D. ). On its chart of Most Viewed Videos of All Time, the current number one video is listed as having had 102,511,551 views. So as you can see, not only has new media indirectly caused acts of piracy to flourish, it has also made it that much more noticeable and accessible to the world. Taken as a whole, the web is not Just another medium like TV or radio is completely new and contemporary that comes with a whole new set of cultural notions (Lang, 2010). The web is the foundation of social evolution it changes how society thinks about information, media and their exchange. The process of remediation does alter the production and consumption process of media texts and with this revolution comes limitations and weaknesses however, old media should start adapting to what consumers want in order to survive the Internet explosion (Fine, 2006). For example, old media such as newspapers and magazines have started to become accustomed to the web by creating online versions of their articles to provide a flat reading experience often mimicking the print version. Furthermore, these old media institutions also use social networking features into their website (Ziegler, 2008).

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Reflective Essay, Scottish Higher Grade English Essay

The Mistreatment is of Animals - Essay Example My first impressions were reserved, as I attributed such differences in behavior to their nature as animals. However, reason quickly turned into apprehension when I realized why they were located discreetly; they were separated in order to avoid possible skirmishes with other dogs. We were told that these dogs were so badly treated by their previous owners that they could not be reintegrated into a normal family home due to their antisocial behaviors. At that point, the whimpering of a small brown dog caught my attention. Witnessing it cower in the corner in its malnourished state immediately aroused a sense of compassion within me. When we were told that the scars on its back were caused by the previous owners extinguishing their cigarettes on its back, a sense of helpless rage momentarily filled me up inside. It only heightened my degree of compassion for the animals. We moved on, taking notes as to which dogs might make for suitable pets. I had a particular interest in a black and white cross breed that appeared visibly sad in its caged state. I was subsequently told by the RSPCA advisors that this dog was not suitable to go into a home environment that had children as a result of mistreatment by the previous owner. The news sent a wave of shame and disgust up my spine for the cruelty of those responsible. I embarrassingly moved on to my next choice, which was a small white dog with black flashes. This dog was deemed suitable and was brought by a handler to the walk area. It was noticeably unhappy in the environment, barking at every dog it passed; this dog clearly had spirit but, having heard the severity of mistreatments, I had reservations regarding its aggression. When brought into the large meeting area, the dog proceeded to sprint two laps of the area and only then came to meet us.   Ã‚  

Monday, February 10, 2020

Sustainability 351 wk 6 forum Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Sustainability 351 wk 6 forum - Research Paper Example The company has been extremely careful to ensure that the recycled boxes are contamination free and are safe for use (Thomas, 2010). Becoming packaging neutral simply means to cut out the cycle of the useful cardboard being wasted and going directly into the landfills. The focus is to help cut out the cycle and to give a new life to the packaging material, thereby reducing the wastage and prioritizing the use of the packaging materials. Yes, the box as seen in the video clearly does meet the requirements as mentioned above (WalMart, 2014). The packaging neutral is simply a means to cut down the levels of trash, and the volumes of pollution and a means to simply expand the pace consumption of the Walmart forests. The focus and attention is to reduce the use of natural resources to the maximum possible extent. Hence, this is in the true sense in line with the definition of the ‘packaging neutral’ aspect of the

Thursday, January 30, 2020

El Presidente Essay Example for Free

El Presidente Essay El Presidente was a film which portrays the happenings from the past when colonization of other country started while Emilio Aguinaldo was the president.  After watching the film, though we watched it bit by bit because of limited time, I can say it was still worth it, because it at least showed to us the events in the past with the creativity of the people behind it. The film was good. I enjoyed watching it, though in some parts of it were kind of confusing to me maybe because I don’t have enough knowledge of history. There are parts when Andres Bonifacio had been a traitor and had been punished to death because of him being a traitor, this confused me. Way back years ago, when I was in elementary and high school years, I can still remember that A. Bonifacio was one of the people I salute in the Philippine History, for being the Father of Katipunan and founder of it. But when I saw that film, I’m confused with what to think of him because of what he acted when someone kind of insult him for not having a higher level of education. He loses his patience and that led to his betrayal to the katipunan. I think if I was in his position, I wouldn’t do what he did, I would prove them wrong about what they think an uneducated or someone who has lower level of learning unworthy to lead, with that he should have proved himself worthy instead of being eaten by his anger. Also, there’s another thing of the film which I’m confused, its Emilio Aguinaldo. It seemed like E. Aguinaldo was a type of person who do not have any flaws in the film. Overall the film was worth watching. It gave me goose bumps in some part of it because of its intensity, and that hurt feeling seeing how our ancestors fight for our freedom that we’re having now because of their bravery even though they had risked their lives for it.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

self-hypnosis :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When a person begins talking about hypnosis, what is your first thought? If the first thing you think of is a person on their knees barking like a dog, or flapping their arms while clucking like a chicken, then you are among many others who believe that hypnosis is purely entertainment. It is actually very common and used across the world as a helpful form of deep relaxation. Many, many people have used hypnosis to achieve goals, overcome obstacles, and enhance the quality of their personal and professional life. It is also believed by many that it takes a professional hypnotist swinging a shiny metal object to become hypnotized, when in fact, hypnosis is not something one person â€Å"does† to another. Its use varies from person to person, although development of this skill can be enhanced with the guidance of an experienced hypnotist. (Baker-Jambretz). Professional hypnotists share the belief that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness. However most people don’t feel any different under hypnosis than the way they feel in their everyday state. Hypnosis is a very powerful tool that can be used for a large variety of topics. These topics range from increasing confidence and managing stress to quitting smoking and actually easing childbirth! The topic that caught my attention involved using self-hypnosis to improve an individual’s ability at sport. The key to this, and most other topics, is to trust yourself and learn to find a deep state of relaxation that you can return to with a simple â€Å"trigger† word. Once you find the trigger word that is best for you, use it to take yourself into a completely different mind-set. Then you need to go through a sequence of affirmations to remind yourself that you are successful and to help you see the skills that you already possess. With this positive mind set, you will realize that the key to performing well in sports is the ability to relax and let things flow naturally. Obviously you won’t just be able go out and excel at a sport without practice and determination, but with hypnosis you will be able to relax and let all aspects of your skills flow with nothing being held back. Not only will your game improve, but your pleasure for the game will increase as well. Whenever you bring yourself into this state with your trigger word, you will be able to see yourself playing just as you like.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Exploration Notes- as Level Drama and Theatre Studies Essay

1) Discuss and compare the exploration of characterisation in Metamorphosis by Steven Berkoff and (A Doll’s House). Draw your own practical understanding of the skills used including use of language and voice to portray character. In our practical sessions of Modelling Gregor in â€Å"Metamorphosis†, we thought about how we would physically see Gregor. To do this, we had to individually create the shape of Gregor with our bodies. We all started off thinking about it really literally- â€Å"How would a beetle look?† rather than thinking about how our body represented Gregor and his feelings towards society. We then expanded on our thoughts about Gregor and then tried to empathise with him and think about how we would look if we were in his situation. My finished individual beetle was crouched/curled up on the floor on my side with my head down, hidden away- this represented Gregor’s vulnerability (a beetle on his back is helpless and cannot move, but a beetle has a hard shell which protects him; I was half and half because with my head down, I didn’t want to be seen by society and I was ashamed of what I had become however with my front/underside slightly showing, I was exposed to society and helpless but because you could see my back/shell, I was half protected by family- I think that throughout the show this would change and I would end up completely on my back because the family does end up abandoning/killing Gregor) , one of my arms was in a jerky/awkward position and the other was outstretched away from my body- the jerky arm represented Gregor changing and being abnormal and different, the outstretched arm however showed that I was reaching for someone to help and save me from what I was turning into; my legs were limp, lifeless and in an awkward shape to show that I was, again, turning into something new and weird but could not move and physically get away from it. After we made our individual beetle, we then worked in partners and modelled them into Gregor. I decided to use props for this (I used a chair). Hana (my model Gregor) ended up being positioned on her side, with her head under the chair and one of her arms reaching out onto it, her legs were crooked and awkward to show that she couldn’t move from her pain. After that, we raced our â€Å"beetles†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Hana lost.. but this showed that Gregor was in a good position because he found it difficult to manoeuvre himself and get away from what was happening to him- his movement was limited and awkward when he did so. Hana then modelled me, she had me stood up with my legs wide open (showing vulnerability) and one of my legs turned in and that knee bent (which looked awkward, abnormal and hard to move), my head was dropped and my stomach was contracted in. She placed my arms out to the sides in awkward positions, which was quite physically demanding as I was holding the position. We then used these positions for a scene of Metamorphosis. The dream scene; we incorporated our ideas of how Gregor felt and moved into this scene. We decided to have a narrator and an actor onstage being Gregor. I tried to capture the essence of Gregor’s franticness yet vulnerability in the way I directed Hana as Gregor. I did this by changing the speed and dynamics of how she was moving; this matched the way I was narrating as I also changed the tempo, dynamics and pitch of my voice to really capture how Gregor’s character felt. To create the family we thought about the physical features of a beetle and applied them to the metaphors of the family. We ended up putting Mr Samsa in the middle, seeing as he is the heart of the family; we then had Gregor again in the middle with his arms over Mr Samsa almost saying that he is protecting him and the family with his income but he is still exposed to society and therefore vulnerable. We had Mrs Samsa knelt in front of Gregor and Mr Samsa looking straight forward with a blank expression almost as if she hasn’t got much to say about the situation and is just disregarding Gregor. Greta was at the very front of the beetle as the antenna, looking out for Gregor and being his sense of feeling. The legs of Gregor were made up of society, but reaching out and away from the beetle and from Gregor. We also (as a practical exercise) held hands as a whole group and twisted ourselves into a character from the play each†¦ this ended up looking abnormal, as the family’s situation is and a lot of it also looked quite painful but we were as one as a unit, as the family is. In order to characterise Nora in a Doll’s House, we used the techniques of Stanislavski because A Doll’s House is a much more naturalistic play compared to Metamorphosis. We started with a focus exercise in which we lay down on the floor and concentrated only on our breathing and our body contact with the floor. We then got thought about some key words to describe Nora’s character and tried to focus on each of them individually, letting each emotion overwhelm our bodies. We then were counted down to stand up and walk around the room as Nora, showing her feelings through non- verbal communication. We also created some tableaux of the family in a dolls house. For this we used visual, aural and spatial techniques. 2) Discuss and compare the Visual, Aural and Spatial elements and the use of non-verbal communication techniques to present issues and ideas in both plays studied. Make reference to your practical work. Visual, aural and spatial elements either have an iconic or symbolic reference. Iconic is always visual, for example a prop; it is iconic because it is what it is and only serves its primary function (e.g. a stool is a stool and is used for sitting on etc.) However a symbolic reference is something that represents something and has a metaphor behind it (e.g. a chair could be symbolic for a particular person). Metamorphosis is an extremely abstract play and the visual, aural and spatial techniques used are very important. The play is commonly set with Gregor at the back on a platform above everyone else, slowly becoming more and more deformed. This is a very visual thing and represents the time’s changing and matters are slowly getting worse and worse for the family. The fact he is higher up than everyone else as well could also symbolise the fact he is hanging over everyone’s head and is a burden on the family. His height could also represent his status and the fact he is the cause for everything happening on stage and when he changes, everything else does as well. Another common way of positioning Gregor is to have scaffolding angling up to the back of the stage like this: This gives perspective; it also makes Gregor look further away but because of the angle, you are drawn in, giving a stronger emotional impact on you as an audience member. The scaffolding itself makes the whole aesthetic of the performance seem more skeletal; which Gregor is also slowly becoming. It is also, obviously, very structured which contradicts how the family’s situation is in the play. In the script it says that every prop is mimed other than 3 black stools places equidistantly of each other for the family to use. I think these proxemics show how the family are as a unit and detached from Gregor. In order to explore and interpret this, we created a series of 10 tableaux. In these 10 tableaux, we used visual, aural and spatial elements to show the subtext of the plot- we mainly focussed on the family and how Gregor’s change affected the family. We used a ladder laid down on its side for scaffolding in which Gregor spent a lot of the time in various awkward ways, becoming more and more deformed and trapped as the tableaux progressed. We thought we should only use the organic sounds from our movement and the ladder for our performance to represent the tension and how awkward the situation/plot/subtext was. In the changeover of each tableau, we decided to move a chair gradually towards the back of the stage to represent Gregor slowly distancing from his family. One element of these tableaux I was quite proud of was the proxemics of each member of the family compared to Gregor and the ladder/scaffolding. This is said ladder; as you can see, there is a divide across it. We used this as a barrier stopping the family from getting to Gregor; apart from in one tableau where we â€Å"broke† this barrier and Greta reached out to Gregor through the partition. Gregor was slowly becoming more and more deformed into the corner during the tableaux. Greta reaching over through the barrier to Gregor. Mrs Samsa reaching over to Greta trying to stop her from â€Å"breaking the barrier†. Mr Samsa: Back turned to Mrs Samsa and Greta (and obviously Gregor, wanting no part of it) Gregor was slowly becoming more and more deformed into this corner during the tableaux. We also used visual, aural and spatial techniques when studying A Doll’s House. Unlike Metamorphosis being abstract, A Doll’s House is much more realistic than Metamorphosis and therefore uses lots of props which are all in one way or another, symbolic of something and metaphorical. As a class we discussed the characters and props and what they may metaphorically represent: * Christmas Tree- The family’s relationships falling apart simultaneously with the pine needles falling off the tree. It could also show that looks can be deceiving because of the fact that while this tree is looking beautiful, the family is deteriorating. * Door- Freedom when Nora leaves. Trouble when she enters from the unknown outside world. * Dr Rank- Society hiding their decay. * Money- Power and all things bad and poisonous. * Nanny- The calm, security and support of Nora and the children. * â€Å"Skylark†- Nora is just a pretty singing bird with no other purpose than looking beautiful. Also the fact that a skylark cannot speak words, this is reflected in Nora; she is not allowed an opinion or it is not heard. * Stove- The characters always go back to it (especially Nora), this could stand for support and forgiveness, the warmth of friendship and loyalty because it is always there. * Macaroons- Nora’s deceit. * Lamp- The light of truth. * The Doll’s House- Nora is a kept woman, everyone’s play thing†¦or so they assume. It is actually Nora who plays with and manipulates the characters around her. Again, looks can be deceiving. Another way we explored visual, aural and special elements in A Doll’s House was when we studied the Tarantella scene. A tarantella is a traditional Italian folk dance. It gets its name from the venomous spider, the tarantula and it is supposed that when one gets bitten by this spider, the victims needed to engage in a frenzied dance in order to prevent death or disease, using very rhythmical music. Now, in context with A Doll’s House, I believe that the reason a Tarantella is danced by Nora is because she is trying to rid herself of the poison from Torvald, Krogstad and maybe even Dr Rank; or she could be trying to rid herself from lies she’s told as this is her poison. We re-enacted the tarantella scene with the proper script. We played with spatial awareness of characters, use of voice and visual effects. Nora’s movement gets gradually more and more frantic and her speech also more frantic and louder and high pitched. Torvald moves with purpose but in a much more organised and authoritative way compared to Nora; he is always keeping his eyes on her and making sure she does it ALL correctly. Mrs Linde comes in from side stage quite discretely, says her line to Nora then moves slowly and almost mysteriously to a chair in the LDF corner. Dr Rank, playing the piano, cannot keep his eyes off Nora but is fairly wary of Torvald’s presence so near him. Nora used a shawl while she was dancing which added to the visual effects and at the end of the dance she threw the shawl on the floor as if her freedom of dance had gone and the poison had come back. We then performed our own interpretive dance for the subtext of the tarantella and the whole play without any script work. We started with Torvald controlling Nora, almost as a puppeteer- for this we used music box doll music. The music then ran into Kashmir by Bond which starts with quite a distorted wave of sound which we used to show Nora slowly changing and fighting back with Torvald. Throughout the dance, Nora got stronger and less poisoned- instead, the poison was transferring into the other characters. After Nora had kicked Torvald to the floor, Mrs Linde came in and started controlling him alongside Torvald; after having liaised with Nora, she became poisoned and slowly deteriorated to the floor. Dr Rank then came into the picture, stepped over Torvald to get to Nora. They danced together until she pushed him away and transferred the poison. Finally, Nora ended up sat down on the floor, looking around almost like a child who had just broken all of her toys. Aurally, there is one very poignant moment in A Doll’s House where the door is slammed at the end by Nora. This gives the play a final point of closure where Nora has gone and has gone for good. Similarly in Metamorphosis, when the apple is thrown into Gregor’s back, this is a definitive sound of the end of the main plot. 3) Evaluate your understanding of the practitioners studied and their influences on Metamorphosis. Use your interpretation notes to aid this question making reference to the practitioners, playwright, and your own practical exploration. Leslie Steven Berkovitch, better known as Steven Berkoff, was born on the 3rd August 1937 to Russian Jews. He came from a poor family and because of their descent; he never fitted in as a child and found it hard to be a part of a group of friends. Growing up in the East End of London is a gritty, tough time for most people let alone someone of the likes of Berkoff. He was a badly behaved child and got kicked out of school a lot. You could argue he was the original â€Å"East Ender† until he then moved to New York- he lived in a 1 bedroom flat, shared with 3 other families (who were also outsiders in New York). Wherever he travelled, he could never fit in and never found anywhere to call home. He grew up to resent his family and moved back to London at age 13. As an outsider, a Russian Jew living in London, he wanted to be a gangster. He was in a stage of identity crisis where didn’t know where to belong and after being so badly influenced and behaved, he ended up in a young offenders prison which obviously made him extremely angry! After this, he changed his name to Berkoff because he didn’t want to be seen as a Jew or associated with his roots. He brought a whole new movement to British playwriting in British society. These plays he wrote commented on equality and people- they were often based in the home. When he came out of prison, he decided to go over to Europe and learn the skill of tailoring like his father had done. During his stay, he was given the book â€Å"Metamorphosis† by Franz Kafka. When he read this, he could instantly make connections between himself and Gregor. After this, he went back to the East End and started writing plays. Unlike his fellow playwrights John Osbourne and Edward Bond, he believed drama should still be abstract. Berkoff was influenced by Greek theatre; he was a â€Å"Megalomaniac of theatre styles† who loved over exaggeration and the use of masks to rid people of their identity. He loved the use of chorus (voices together) and poetic verse because it takes things out of context. I was inspired by Brecht and his political (borderline social) take on drama and the use of gestus and satire. He also like Artaud and his theatre of cruelty and the way he used the senses and sounds to put over metaphorical messages. He then travelled to France and worked under Lecoq who was a mime artiste and physical theatre worker and trained with him until he decided to move back to London. When he got back to London, he built up his manifesto of theatre. TOTAL THEATRE. Total theatre Greek theatre (chorus, unison, exaggeration), theatre of cruelty (loud sounds, harsh, gritty images and metaphors) and epic theatre (Brecht- teaches a message, gestus, stereotypes, alienation). Berkoff moulded all these ideas together and created his characters as comic and caricatures. Using the whole of the body was very important to him as he was an extremely physical director, well demonstrated with the character of Gregor in Metamorphosis. As a practitioner, Berkoff also wrote plays as well as acted and directed. He liked using lots of language and words (almost Shakespearian). He was extremely articulate and using beautiful language he talked about the gritty East End and reality of life. To put Berkoff’s views into practice, we had to pretend to be in love with a chair. We exaggerated our love and feelings and the chair was like a metaphor for our lover. We then had to flip our mood and become angry with the chair; it got us all to think how people would stereotypically act with someone you loved and then hated. We also had to pretend we were at a picnic on our own, slowly becoming more and more exaggerated with our eating and drinking, and gradually more grotesque. It really got us to focus into it and get into it, so when it was time to â€Å"fake wretch†, I actually felt physically sick! We also practiced slow motion. This was very physically demanding, like how Steven Berkoff would have directed. It was very important to control your movements but not forget that when you sped up the movements, they should look exactly the same as the slow ones. 4) Evaluate your understanding of the practitioner studied and his influence on A Doll’s House. Use your interpretation notes to aid this question making reference to the practitioners, playwright, and your own practical exploration. Henrik Ibsen was born in Norway in 1828 and died in 1906. He was from a well to do Merchant family, however his father’s fortunes took a significant turn for the worse and he ended up a moody, nasty man and turned to alcoholism which he then took out on his family. Ibsen subsequently, only wrote about money and marriage as this was influenced from his own life. His plays were seen as scandalous to many of his era because they were always touching on sensitive subjects like human rights. This then influenced many other playwrights and novelists such as George Bernard Shaw, Oscar Wilde, Arthur Miller and James Joyce. He is one of the founders of modernism in theatre. During his time, despite failing to achieve success as a playwright, he gained a lot of practical experience at the Norwegian theatre company. His play â€Å"A Doll’s House† is a realistic drama that highlights the cultural conflicts of the 19th century. The play was very controversial when it was first published as it was sharply critical of 19th century marriage norms. Her ended up having to change the ending of the original script because the leading actress didn’t like the idea of having to act out abandoning her children. It also manifests Ibsen’s concerns for women’s rights and human rights in general. This was widely considered as a landmark in the development of what would soon become a highly prevalent genre of theatre- REALISM. Realism was consequently realised. It wasn’t however until the likes of Stanislavski came along that realism became so well known and loved. He wanted a sense of realism in his work and he wanted his actors to really connect with their character. In his eyes, the actors WERE the characters. He believed REAL ACTORS=REAL ACTING. We used Stanislavski’s techniques to get into our roles when studying A Doll’s House. We began with a focus exercise, lying on the floor and zoning out our thoughts. We then thought about our character and let their feelings overwhelm our own like Stanislavski would have got his actors to. We then connected with their emotions, felt how they felt and immediately after, acted out a short scene between Nora and Torvald. This helped us all enormously because got us to lose out inhibitions and focus entirely on the story, situation and emotions of the characters. 5) Discuss the Social, Historical, Cultural and Political content of the texts studied and compare the impact on an audience and on yourself as a student of drama. In Metamorphosis, the social, historical and cultural background is made apparent in a number of ways throughout the play. Franz Kafka (the author of the original novel) took his inspiration for the characters from his own relationship between himself and his father. Unforgettable images of dislocation seem to represent both the madness of the modern world and his own desperate neurosis. Similarly, Berkoff wasn’t very close with his father. Practitioners like Brecht and Artaud influenced his work- this is clearly visible in Metamorphosis as he took Artaud’s Theatre of Cruelty and gave it Brecht’s Epic Theatre attributes. Berkoff’s own unique style created this play incorporating his personal passion of mime and the genre of expressionism. Acknowledging what I know about both Berkoff and Kafka, it is blatent that the Social, Cultural, Historic and Political aspects in terms of the two writers were their personal experiences of suppression from society, the culture they were brought up in (Kafka brought up in the a Jewish community and Berkoff brought up in the lower class and status he was born into by Russian Jews). Metamorphosis can be seen as a reaction against society and its demands. Gregor’s physical separation could represent his alienation and understandable desire. He was crushed by authority and routine and had been imprisoned by social and economic demands: â€Å"Just don’t stay in bed being useless . . .† It prevents the forthcoming rebellion of the son against the father. Gregor had become strong as a result of his father’s failure. He destroyed his father’s self-esteem and took over the father’s posts and duties within the family. After the catastrophe, the same sequence takes place in reverse: son becomes weak, and father kills him. Gregor is shown as a symbol of anxiety and alienation who is a lonely character, isolated in his own mind from the community and true friendship (much like Kafka and Berkoff). Looking at where Gregor’s values were anchored: servant to the needs of an oppressive boss in order to meet the needs of a family that continuously exploits him. The metamorphosis was inevitable. Metamorphosis shows the views and attitudes of society. It isn’t necessarily the one we live in today, but looking at it from a historical point of view it could have been representing the society in the nineteen hundreds (1915) when metamorphosis was first published. Kafka was born in Germany and could be referring to the time of the war, and how the Jewish communities were discriminated against. In A Doll’s House, patriarchal ideals were supported and reinforced by a social structure in which women had very little political or economic power. They were economically, socially, and psychologically dependent upon men and especially dependent upon the institutions of marriage and motherhood. Motherhood within marriage was considered a woman’s highest possible achievement. It was a social responsibility, a duty to society, and therefore, a full-time job. Mothering was no longer something that came naturally, but was something that had to be learned. High infant mortality rates, particularly in urban areas, were solely blamed on mothers. Working class mothers were labeled neglectful, when in truth they struggled with both child care and feeding a family. The plot concerns the collapse of a middle class marriage. It sparked debates about women’s rights and divorce. It was considered innovative and daring because of its focus on psychological tension instead of external action. It also created a new acting style that required emotion be conveyed through small, controlled gestures, shifts in action, and pauses and it was groundbreaking in that it caused drama to be viewed as social commentary and not just entertainment. For me, I think that these factors in both plays have different effects on me because in A Doll’s House, the living situation is so much more common these days compared to the monstrosity it was back when it was written. I feel like I can however relate to Nora and how she’s feeling because she is quite feministic like myself. I become quite confused when thinking about how Metamorphosis affects me because it’s obviously a very abstract play but I can empathise with Gregor and moreover Greta because she just wants to help her brother but the higher members of the family won’t let her.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Tales Of Beowulf And The Descriptions Of His Battles

When reading the tales of Beowulf and the descriptions of his battles, you tend to think that this is about a god-like or super-powered creator - anything but human. The truth surrounding Beowulf, if there truly is a truth to these tales, is something that remains unclear, because almost nothing other than Beowulf, as far as writings and literature, has survived from this time in history. Beowulf, however, has been written and rewritten, again and again, because these tales were so popular with the people of that time period. These tales had everything going for them, particularly the trials and making of a good, godly man or god-like man. Heroic, epic battles, strength, blood and grit, all things that good story tellers needed for an interesting story. Yet, this is not to say that Beowulf is like any other human being walking around; no, Beowulf is a Geat, and the last one of his kind. Beowulf has the strength of 30 men in each arm and a grasp strong enough to kill. Beowulf feel s that he â€Å"owes his self to the king of Hrothgar because of his fathers ties†.(260-264) Hrothgar took in Ecgtheow in a time of need, and Ecgtheow, being Beowulf s father, pledged himself to the King of Danes. Beowulf lives across the sea from the Danes, so it takes some time before the stories about what is going on in the land of the Danes to make it across the water. Beowulf learns of these tales and loads a ship with 14 warriors, setting sail for the land of the Danes. When Beowulf and hisShow MoreRelatedBeowulf Analysis712 Words   |  3 PagesWhile reading the epic tale of the almighty, brave Beowulf, readers are forced to ask themselves questions regarding the reliability of the story. In these types of stories literature, â€Å"readers are required to do more ‘detective’ work to determine whether a narrator is trustworthy or not† (Olsen 104). The tale of the almighty warrior Beowulf can be hard to believe due to because of its use of an unreli able narrator. In the epic poem Beowulf, the third person omniscient narrator can be seen as unreliableRead MoreBeowulf Literary Analysis Essay869 Words   |  4 PagesRonis Aba September 27th, 2012 Period 6th â€Å"No better king had ever lived, no prince so mild, no man so open to his people, so deserving of praise.† This is an ultimate description of the heroic events of Beowulf, an old Anglo-Saxon poem about a warrior who battles and destroys three horrifying monsters. Although written long ago, the emotions expressed within this work, emotions of bravery, valor, and ethics still speak to us centuries later. The anonymous author of the poemRead MoreBeowulf: a Pagan Epic Hero?1681 Words   |  7 PagesBeowulf: A Pagan Epic Hero? Throughout literature there have been countless parallels and references to the story of Christ as written in the Bible. Even in such unexpected places as in seemingly pagan poems of ancient Danes and Geats- an epic with dragons and monsters- one still finds similar biblical allusions. In just such an unexpected place, the epic Beowulf, its title hero and his circumstance, become an allegory for the story of Christ. In this sense, Beowulf can be seen as a ChristianRead MoreBeowulf Is Not Your Average Viking Warrior1498 Words   |  6 Pagesterrible strength, then heaved his war-sword and swung his arm: the decorated blade came down ringing and singing on her head. But soon he found his battle-torch extinguished; the shining blade refused to bite.† (1518-1523). Few images in medieval literature capture masculinity as well as the sword. Its phallic shape and use of dealing harm by penetrating your foe make it the ultimate allusion to the male anatomy. However, in this batt le between Grendel’s mother and Beowulf, our hero’s sword cannotRead MoreWhen tales are told of valiant heroes in history, a handful stand out as some of the most1400 Words   |  6 PagesWhen tales are told of valiant heroes in history, a handful stand out as some of the most well-known and revered of them all. Although the two in the title are not as famous as Superman or Spiderman, this does not make their tale any less epic. Both Achilles and Beowulf brought a new style of hero to the table. The two heroes had their flaws, however paid it back in spades with the bravery displayed in their respective epics. What is interesting about these two heroes is that their stories were writtenRead MoreEssay about The Importance of Grendel and the Dragon in Beowulf1278 Words   |  6 PagesThe Importance of Grendel and the Dragon in Beowulf â€Å"In my youth I engaged in many wars†, Beowulf boasts to his warriors, which is certainly true. Throughout his life, he faces many deadly foes, all of which he handily defeats, save one. His story focuses on the most challenging, as well as morally significant of foes, Grendel and the dragon. These creatures reveal much about society as well as Christian virtue at the time. Even after Grendel and the dragon are defeated physically, the twoRead MoreEpic Hero In Beowulf1134 Words   |  5 Pagesin many cases they lacked what even many modern-day heroes do: nobility. â€Å"Beowulf†, an epic poem ten centuries old, tells of a young Swedish nobleman who saves the day by defeating three wicked beasts: the mighty spirit Grendel and his mother, and a monstrous dragon. While these were great accomplishments that required much courage, why did he do them? According to the epic, Beowulf was in Hrothgar’s debt because of his deceased father’s actions. Therefore, many believe he aided the Danes becauseRead MoreBeowulf: an Epic Hero983 Words   |  4 PagesNate Gauvain British Literature Beowulf Essay 9/22/04 Beowulf: An Epic Hero According to Abrams, the heroic poem is a long verse narrative on a serious subject, told in an elevated style, and centered on a heroic or quasi-divine figure on whose actions depends the fate of a tribe, a nation, or the human race. Beowulf fits Abrams description of an epic, exhibiting all of the characteristics listed throughout the book, thus defining Beowulf as a hero and making the book an epic through itsRead MoreThe Characteristics Of Beowulf As Symbolized By His Swords942 Words   |  4 PagesCharacteristics of Beowulf as Symbolized by His Swords In Beowulf, the unknown bard employs the use of swords as symbols to display the true nature of the epic hero. Throughout Beowulf, swords play a large role of simply a hero’s weapon of choice; however, the motif of swords are crucial to the development of many of the epic poem’s characters, especially Beowulf himself (Culbert 13). The reader is able to perceive Beowulf’s pride, loyalty, and strength all through the bond with his swords; accordinglyRead MoreTheme Of Paganism In Beowulf1179 Words   |  5 Pageslongest epic poem ever written in the genre of Old English is â€Å"Beowulf†, it has been composed in the native language as spoken during the Anglo-Saxon reign in England, preceding the Norman Conquest. Beowulf is regarded as a classic tale which relates the defeat of evil and triumph of good. The poem is divided into three acts. Christian and Pagan Influences in Beowulf: The Pagan deities, rituals as well as pagan ideas influenced Beowulf, when it was being created, though the passing down of the epic